Complete TAC Table of Contents

 

CHAPTER 1  Data Analysis and System Integration  11

CHAPTER 2  The Digital Atomic Age 15

2-1:  Math led the technical world into the Digital with Linear Algebra. 17

2-2:  The Place of Equations in the Digital Revolution. 17

2-3:  Most Physical Phenomenon is Analog, Requiring Conversion to Digital. 18

2-4:  The Math of Motion is a Good Starting Place for the Technical. 18

2-5:  Digital and Digital Computers to Technical Applications of Computers. 18

2-6:  “Digital Signal Processing”. 19

2-7:  (D1)  MATLAB, Path, and Workspace. 21

2-8:  (D2)  Plotting, Subplots, Axis and Labels. 24

2-9: (D3)  Polynomial Algebra and Polynomial Roots. 24

2-10: (D4) Graphics and Descriptive Stats. 24

CHAPTER 3                      Systems Integration of Aerodynamics and Control. 29

3-1:  Steady State Flight with Principles of Stability and Control. 30

3-2:  Background for Cl, Cd, and Cm. 33

3-3:  Trim equilibrium as far as pitch when all moments at the C.G. are zero. 34

3-4:  Coefficients from Flight Test versus Mach and Altitude. 35

3-5:  From Aerodynamic Coefficients to Aerodynamic Derivatives. 35

3-6:  Plot of Moment Coefficient Curve with a Negative Slope. 37

3-7:  Aerodynamic Derivatives Simply Mean the Use of Partial DEs. 38

3-8:  Data Analysis Example #1:  Elevator Deflection versus Pilot Force. 39

3-9:  Energy, Momentum, and Moments of an Aircraft. 39

3-10:  Classical Modes of Aircraft Flight Test. 39

CHAPTER 4                      F-16 Simulation with FORTRAN and MATLAB 41

4-1:  Stability Analysis of This Flight Control System. 42

4-2:  The Actuator. 43

4-3:  Dynamic Characteristics of the Aircraft. 44

4-4:  All Programs/Simulations Work and Economically. 46

4-5:  Simulations at NASA. 46

4-6:  Simulator Study of F-16 Stall Characteristics. 46

4-7:  (D1)  Arrays, Matrices, Vectors, and Data Types. 53

4-8:  (D2)  Some Basic Built In Data Analysis Functions in MATLAB. 53

4-9:  (D3)  Files, Functions, and Data Structure. 53

4-10: (D4)  Histograms and Cumulative Curves. 53

CHAPTER 5             UAV’s and Other Flight Test Reports 57

5-1:  The Altair/Predator B. 58

5-2:  Recent UAV Flight Test Experience at NASA, 1998. 59

5-3:  Flight Tests of the X-48B UAV between 2007 and 2008. 60

5-4:  AFTI/F-16 Flight Test Results and Lessons Learned. 62

5-5:  Ups and Downs of UAV Testing by John Del Frate of NASA. 65

5-6:  Aircraft Parameter Estimation. 66

5-7:  Predicted and Flight Derived Stability and Control Derivatives. 70

5-8:  Stability and Control Derivatives from Space. 70

5-9:  Measurement of the Damping Roll. 71

5-10:  Study of Longitudinal Dynamic Stability in Flight. 71

5-11:  Estimation Accuracy of Flight Determined Coefficients. 71

5-12:  Aircraft State and Parameter Identification. 71

5-13:  Dynamic Stability and Control Flight Research. 71

5-14:  Stability and Control Derivatives and Dynamic Characteristics. 71

5-15:  FORTRAN Program for Aircraft Stability and Control Derivatives. 71

5-16:  New Method for Dynamic Stability and Control. 71

5-17:  Methods of Aircraft State and Parameter Identification. 71

5-18: (D1)  2-D and 3-D Plots, Mesh, Color, and Shading. 71

5-19: (D2)  Flow control. 71

5-20: (D3)  Plotting Complex Numbers and Function Plot. 71 3-21: (D4)  Normal Distribution. 72

CHAPTER 6             The Process 73

4-1:  The 10 step Process of this book. 73

4-2:  The 10 step Process of Aerospace. 75

4-3:  The Process of Learning:  ILS. 75

4-4:  Historical PROCESS of The Digital Atomic Age. 76

4-5:  Math led the technical world into the Digital with Linear Algebra. 78

4-6:  The Place of Mathematical Equations in the Digital Revolution. 78

4-7:  Most Physical Phenomenon is Analog, Requiring Conversion to Digital. 79

4-8:  The Math of Motion is a Good Starting Place for the Technical. 79

4-9:  Digital and Digital Computers & Applications of Computers. 79

4-10:  Digital Signal Processing. 80

4-11:  Evolution in Math Techniques for Engineering Applications. 82

4-12:  Software, Firmware, and Digital Math. 82

4-13:  Linear Continuous Systems with Simulink Modeling. 83

4-14: (D1)  Files/Directories, Handling Data, & External Programs. 84

4-15: (D2)  Fourier Transform. 84

4-16: (D3)  Plotting Polynomials with “polyval”. 84

4-17: (D4)  Matrices of Data and Plotting. 84

CHAPTER 7                      Basic and Technical Applications of MATLAB 85

5-1:  MATLAB for a “Gravity” function. 85

5-2:  MATLAB uses a lot of built in functions like “mean”. 86

5-3:  MATLAB Built-in Functions are in C:\MATLAB\toolbox\matlab\.. 87

5-4:  The Quadratic Equation function script with MATLAB. 89

5-5:  (D1)  Programming in MATLAB. 90

5-6:  (D2)  Strings and “feval”. 90

5-7:  (D3)  Data Markers and Line Types. 90

5-8:  (D4)  Linear Regression and Curve Fitting. 90

CHAPTER 8                      Differential Equations and Matrices 91

6-1:  A Simple RC Circuit. 93

6-2:  Equations of Motion are Differential Equations. 94

6-3:  MATLAB and Simulink. 95

6-4:  Laplace Transform and Transfer Function. 96

6-5:  More RC Functional Networks with their TF(s) Equivalency. 99

6-6:  Programming the Motion of the Pendulum into MATLAB. 100

6-7:  RLC Circuit of Electricity also deals with physical motion. 101

6-8:  The TF to solve Motion Problems of an F-16 Accelerometer. 101

6-9:  The Spring Mass System Measures Acceleration of the F-16. 101

6-10:  Continuous Systems and Model for Bungee Jumping. 104

6-11:  (D1)  More Programming and Vectorized Computations. 105

6-12: (D2)  Another Drill on Saving and Loading Data in Other Formats. 105

6-13: (D3)  Load Line Analysis of an Electric Circuit. 105

6-14: (D4)  Time Series and Autocorrelation. 105

CHAPTER 9             Using MATLAB for Calculus. 107

7-1:  Differential Command, diff(x), in MATLAB. 107

7-2:   The Integration Command, int(x) in MATLAB. 107

7-3:  Linear and Cubic Interpolation, interp1, in MATLAB. 107

7-4:  Computation and Plotting of a Least-Squares Polynomial. 107

7-5:  Numerical Evaluation of a Polynomial. 107

7-6:  Integral Under a Curve with the Numerical Analysis of Simpson. 107

7-7:  Numerical Analysis with the Newton-Rapson method. 107

7-8:  The Taylor Series Polynomial. 107

7-9:  The LaPlace Transform. 107

7-10: (D1)  Input, Eval, Feval, Debugging, and Profiling. 107

7-11: (D2)  Subplots, Double Axis, and Labels. 107

7-12: (D3)  Progressing on Finer Points of Plots. 108

7-13: (D4)  Filters. 108

CHAPTER 10           Applications of  The Transfer Function. 109

8-1:  The Transfer Function. 109

8-2:  LaPlace Transform, parameters in s. 110

8-3:  State-Space Variable Equations. 111

8-4:  Concepts/Techniques Applied to the Electric Circuit. 112

8-5:  Let MATLAB do it all for you. 116

8-6:  Damping and Natural Frequency with the Transfer Function. 116

8-7:  Transfer Function and State-Space. 116

8-8:  Fun Applications of TF to F-14 and F-16. 116

8-9:  (D1)  Data In/Out, Printing, and Exporting Figures. 116

8-10: (D2)  Text in Graphics, Symbols and Greek Letters. 116

8-11: (D3)  Low Pass Filter and Log Plots. 116

8-12: (D4)  Trend Analysis. 116

CHAPTER 11           Missiles, Trajectories, and Guidance 117

9-1:  A Missile Program and Data to Play With. 117

9-2:  What the Table Looks Like. 121

9-3:  Error Analysis of Calculated Pressure Vs Standard. 124

9-4:  It is always easier to Analyze Data or A Routine with Plots. 124

9-5:  Cleaning Up the Plot. 125

9-10: (D1)  Introduction to Handle Graphics. 125

9-11: (D2)  GUIs. 125

9-12: (D3)  Stem, Stairs, and Bar Plots. 125 9-13: (D4)  Time Series. 125

CHAPTER 12                    Numerical Analysis 127

10-2:  Error Analysis. 128

10-3:  The Bulirsch-Stoer Polynomial Interpolation. 128

10-4:  Polyfit Finds Coefficients of the Polynomial. 128

10-5:  Newton’s Raphson Method of Numerical Analysis. 128

10-6:  Gaussian Elimination. 128

10-7:  Jacobi Method. 128

10-7:  Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors. 128

10-8:  Least Squares Approximation. 128

10-9:  Fourier Methods such as FFT (Fast Fourier Transform). 128

10-10: Numerical Differentiation and Integration. 128

10-11: Methods for Ordinary Differential Equations. 128

10-12: The Saving and Loading of Data. 128

10-13: Plotting for Graphical Visualization. 128

10-14: Curve Fitting to Test Data. 128

10-15: Airfoil Data. 128

10-16: Nozzle Aerodynamics. 128

10-17: Graphing an Electrical Diagram. 128

10-18: (D1)  Creating Graphical User Interfaces in MATLAB. 128

10-19: (D2)  Guide for Drawing GUIs and “help unitools”. 128

10-20: (D3)  Function Discovery. 128 10-21: (D4)  Fourier Series. 129

CHAPTER 13                    Automatic Control 131

11-1:  A Working Knowledge of MATLAB  (Essentials Review of MATLAB). 131

11-2:  Modeling with MATLAB. 132

11-3:  The Famous PID Controller. 132

11-4:  MATLAB for Root Locus. 133

11-5:  Frequency Response with the Bode and Nyquist Plots. 133

11-6:  State-Space with MATLAB and Simulink. 134

11-7:  Controller of a Digital Computer. 134

11-8:  Review of Simulink Essential Basics for Automatic Control. 135

11-9:  Model Based Design with Simulink. 135

11-10: (D1)  Linear Systems. 135

11-11: (D2)  Printing Graphics. 135

11-12: (D3)  Interpolation, Extrapolation, and 3-D Plots. 136 11-12: (D4)  Filtering in the Frequency Domain. 136

CHAPTER 14           Model Based  Design 137

12-1:  A Definition from Wikipedia. 138

12-2:  Value of Model Based Design. 139

12-3:  To Model the AFTI F16 Flight Control Computer in Simulink. 140

12-4:  Present and Future of Embedded Systems. 143

12-5:  Hybrid Electric Vehicle Design Example with Model Based Design. 144

12-6:  Model Based Design in Aerospace. 145

12-6:  Simulink. 148

12-7:  Michigan Technology University Design Experience for EcoCar. 148

12-8:  (D1)  Power and Versatility of Simulink. 149

12-9:  (D2)  3 Dimensional Modeling. 149

12-10: (D3)  Linear Algebraic Equations. 149

12-11: (D4)  Eigenvalue Graph. 150

CHAPTER 15           Examples of Model Based Design 151

13-1:  Forward on MATLAB and Simulink Basics to the work lab. 151

13-2:  More Progress on Creating Models in Simulink. 152

13-3:  Model of a Car, the ultimate plant plus controller. 152

13-4:  Cruise Control for an Automobile. 152

13-5:  Communications System for Modulation and Demodulation. 152

13-6:  Amplitude Modulation (AM) with 2 Sources and a Multiplexer. 152

13-7:  Controlling Motor Speed of a Direct Current (DC) Motor. 152

13-8:  Measuring Position of a DC Motor. 152

13-9:  Vertical Motion of a Bus Suspension System. 152

13-10: Control of the Angle of a Vertical Pole. 152

13-11: Pitch  Controller of an Aircraft. 152

13-12: A Rolling Ball on a Beam. 153

13-13:  A Switch and Relational Operator Model. 153

13-14: Simple Transducer of Slider and Gain to Control Speed. 153

13-15: (D1)   Numerical Methods. 153

13-16: (D2)  Vectorizing Code for Programming. 153

13-17: (D3)  Matrix Commands for Solving Linear Equations. 153 13-18: (D4)  The Lorentz System. 153

CHAPTER 16                    Modeling Discrete Systems in Simulink. 155

14-1:  A Look at the Discrete Block Library of Simulink. 155

14-2:  Difference Equation Models and Unit Delay Blocks. 155

14-3:  Interface between Modeled System and Discrete Solvers. 155

14-4: The Z Doman Transfer Function Block:  Discrete Cruise Controller. 156

14-5:  Discrete Filter as an AM Demodulator. 156

14-6:  Modeling Other Filters of Digital Signal Processing. 156

14-7:  Model of Zero Crossing Detector. 156

14-8:  Model of Disabling Zero Crossings. 156

14-9:  (D1)  External Interfacing. 156

14-10: (D2)  Sub functions, Debugging, and Profiler. 156

14-11: (D3)  Some Drills with MATLAB Programming. 156 14-12: (D4)  Writing S-Functions in C. 156

CHAPTER 17                    Advanced Techniques of Simulink. 157

15-1:  Cruise Control for an Automobile. 157

15-2:  The Classic Bouncing Ball System Modeled in Simulink. 157

15-3:  Controlling Motor Speed of a Direct Current (DC) Motor. 157

15-4:  Building A GUI. 157

15-5:  Measuring Position of a DC Motor. 157

15-6:  Vertical Motion of a Bus Suspension System. 157

15-7:  Control of the Angle of a Vertical Pole. 157

15-8:  Pitch Controller of an Aircraft. 158

15-9:  A Rolling Ball on a Beam. 158

15-10: (D1)  Mex Functions in MATLAB. 158

15-11: (D2)  More Skill in Programming. 158

15-12: (D3)  Building User Friendly Diagrams in Simulink 158

15-13: (D3)  Diagrams b. 158

15-14: (D4)  Diagrams c. 158

CHAPTER 18           Some Aerodynamics of Flight 161

16-1:  Steady State Trim Program and the State Space Concept. 161

16-2:  A Definition of Steady State Flight. 162

16-3:  Life, Drag, and Moment Coefficients. 162

16-4:  Lift, Drag, and Moment Coefficients in NASA reports. 163

16-5:  Power for Steady State Flight. 163

16-6:  Stability and Control. 164

16-7:  Center of Gravity and Neutral Point. 164

16-8.  Vtrim and Static Longitudinal Stability. 164

16-9:  A GENERIC TRIM Program. 164

16-10: The State Vector and the Control Vector Outputs. 164

16-11:  A Linearization Program. 164

16-12:  A Time-History Simulation. 164

16-13:  Current NASA flight literature and the Flight Textbooks. 164

16-14:  Program to Calculate Cl, Cd, and Cm. (p 246, John) 167

16-15:  Paraphrased Statements and Equations, Also Techniques from B&K. 167

16-17: (D)  The Simulink Accelerator. 169

CHAPTER 19           Practical Parameter Estimation 171

17-1.  Basic Aircraft Parameters and Equations. 172

17-2:  The Cost Function, J. 172

17-3:  Cost Function in Model Methology of Operations Research. 173

17-4:  “Fminsearch” of MATLAB, Nelder and Mead Simplex Algorithm. 173

17-5:  Place of the Cost Function in Parametric Estimation. 173

17-6:  MATLAB Program for Aircraft Trim plus. 173 17-7:  (D) Model Differencing Tool 173

CHAPTER 20           Fly-By-Wire (FBW) 175

18-1:  The Pitch Actuator Simulink Model of the F-14. 176

18-2:  Modified LTV Corsair actually first on Fly By Wire. 177

18-3:  Simultaneous Testing on AFTI and the X36 at NASA Dryden. 178

18-3:  The FCC of the AFTI F-16. 178

18-4:  F-16 Simulation in Straight and Level Configuration. 179 18-5:  (D)  Simulink Profiler. 179

CHAPTER 21                    Flight Control Computer 185

19-1:  FCC as Classic Feedback Control System. 185

19-2: Analogies Between FCCs and the G-H Block Diagram. 187

19-3:  Negative Feedback Control. 188

19-4:  The Standard PI, PD, and PID controllers of Automatic Control. 189

19-5:  Transfer Functions of the AFTI FCC. 191 19-6:  Feedback Control with an Inner Loop. 191

19-7: Compensator of the AFTI FCC. 192

CHAPTER 22                    Application #1 on Flight Test 195

20-1:  Longitudinal Stability in Flight Test. 197

20-2:  Flight Controls Enhanced by the Digital Revolution. 200

20-3:  Prime Differential Equation and the Process. 200

20-4:  Process Step #1:  The Problem to Calculate and Measure Stability. 202

20-5:  Step #2, A Sketch of the Problem with Parameters. 203

20-6:  Step #3, Equations to Predict Plane Flight Characteristics. 203

20-7:  Step #4, Program the Equations into MATLAB. 204

20-8:  Step #5, View and Analyze the Plots in MATLAB. 204

20-9:  Step #6, Simulate in MATLAB SIMULINK. 204

20-10: Animation of Flight Test for Step #7. 204

20-11: Flight Test (Step 8). 204

20-12: Data Analysis (Step 9). 204

20-13:  Flight Test Report (Step 10). 206

CHAPTER 23                    Additional Technical Applications. 207

22-2:  Data Analysis. 207

22-3:  Common Airborne Instrumentation System (CAIS). 207

22-4:  Fight Test of EVN (Enhanced Visual Navigation). 207

22-5:  S Functions in C. 207

22-6:  Working with Simulink Blocks from the Command Window. 207

22-7:  Some Advanced Simulink Modeling Techniques. 207

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